Cardiometabolism Xpert 2013

Cardiovascular Effects of Anti-Diabetic Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Samar Singh et al.
Current Cardiology Reports 2013; 15(1): 1-9
Diabetes affects 25.8 million people in the United States (8.3 % of the US population) and is currently the 7th leading cause of death. The major cause of death in these patients (>65 %) is due to cardiovascular disease and the total diabetes cost in the US is estimated to be approximately $174 billion/year . Given the significant morbidity and mortality of diabetes and its related complications,...
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Persistent elevation of central pulse pressure during postural stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
M G. Schultz et al.
Journal of Human Hypertension 2012; aop:10.1038/jhh.2012.60
An abnormal increase or decrease in brachial blood pressure (BP) in response to standing from the seated or supine position is associated with increased risk of developing hypertension, and stroke. The underlying haemodynamic mechanisms associated with this increased cardiovascular risk are unknown. Most studies on postural BP have only focused on changes to brachial BP. However, recent literature...
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Cardiovascular Risk Factors Promote Brain Hypoperfusion Leading to Cognitive Decline and Dementia
de la Torre Jack C.
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology 2012 (2012), Article ID 367516, 15 pages
It has been known since the Ebers papyrus in 1552 BC, and probably even before then, that the brain and heart are intimately connected. The ancient Greeks and Aristotle in particular believed that the function of the brain was to "cool" the blood while the heart was the source of memory. This belief was consolidated by religious and scientific dogma for centuries. It took the most significant...
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Emergent cardiovascular risk factors in the very elderly
Filipe A Moura et al.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 2012; 10(10): 1221-5
The age configuration of the world's population is expected to change noticeably over the next few decades, implicating an increase in burden regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD). Relative to middle-aged individuals, men and women between 65 and 74 years have a tenfold greater incidence rate of myocardial infarction (MI) . This pattern persists, as evidenced by a nearly twofold increase in...
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Metabolic Gene Remodeling and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Failing Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Secondary to Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Gomez-Arroyo, Jose Md et al.
Circulation: Heart Failure 2013; 6(1): 136-44
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and often rapidly progressive group of diseases that are characterized by a chronically and frequently progressive increase in the right ventricular (RV) afterload. Increased RV afterload is partially compensated by RV hypertrophy but eventually leads to RV dysfunction (RVD), RV failure, and untimely death, regardless of medical treatment. Given the...
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Cardiac dysfunction in pauci symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients: a meta-analysis in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
Enrico Cerrato et al.
European Heart Journal 2013; aop: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs471
Several studies have reported a strong association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cardiac abnormalities, which are closely associated with high morbidity and mortality., Human immunodeficiency virus itself, as well as the autoimmune response, and the high cardiovascular risk profile of HIV-positive patients are the main mechanisms...
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Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey
Giuffrida Fernando MA et al.
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2012; 11(1): 156
Fatal cardiovascular disease before 40 years old shows an almost 20-fold increase in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic individuals . Dyslipidemia is a key cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) in type 1 diabetes, with tighter treatment goals than the non-diabetic population . Nevertheless, differences in the behavior of dyslipidemia in type 1 diabetes are not only quantitative...
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Ovariectomy Causes Overexpression of Renal Na+,K+-ATPase and Sodium-Sensitive Hypertension in Adult Wistar Rats
Luis A Di Ciano et al.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2012; aop:10.3109/10641963.2012.758273
We investigated the effect of ovariectomy(oVx) on renal and systemic hemodynamic, electrolyte excretion and total and dephosphorylated Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit (t-d-NKA) in normotensive Wistar rats under a normal sodium (NS, 0.24%) or high sodium (HS, 1%) intake versus intact female (IF). On NS intake, t-d-NKA was higher in oVx rats and overexpressed in the thick ascending limbs (P < .01...
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Subclinical Hypothyroidism after Vascular Complicated Pregnancy
Moniek van der Zanden MD et al.
Hypertension in Pregnancy 2012; aop:10.3109/10641955.2011.642435
Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.
Methods In 372 women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy, we assessed thyroid function.
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High Blood Pressure Effects on the Blood to Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier and Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Composition: A Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Study in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
González-Marrero Ibrahim et al.
International Journal of Hypertension 2013 (2013), Article ID 164653, 9 pages
Cerebrospinal fluid is a functional system closely connected to the brain, and changes or variations in the CSF may mean an alteration in the brain expressed by encephalic disorders. However, the composition of CSF may also be altered by systemic diseases, such as arterial hypertension, and cerebral ventricular dilatation, changes in CSF protein, and variations of the choroid plexus and other circumventricular...
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Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk in children
Canas, Jose A. et al.
Current Opinion in Cardiology 2013; 28(2): 103-14
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a lifelong process that has its roots in childhood. However, clinical complications and/or overt disease conditions such as atherosclerosis arise from lesions developed decades later in life. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches to CVD have been steadily and robustly evolving in recent years. Because progression of CVD is silent and the final end-points of CVD are not...
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The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women
Eshghinia Samira et al.
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 2013; 12(1): 4
Obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, with a rapidly increasing prevalence. The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2015 approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million obese . Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, stroke and cancer . Moreover, a decrease in energy intake has been shown to lower...
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MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs
F. Streitparth et al.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 2013; aop: 10.1007/s00270-013-0570-x
Between 30 and 40 percent of all adults in industrialized countries have high blood pressure, and it is expected that the prevalence will increase further . A major reason for treating arterial hypertension is to prevent the development of end organ damage such as stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure. Each blood pressure increase of 20/10 mm Hg doubles the risk of cardiovascular mortality...
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Characteristics of pulse wave velocity in elastic and muscular arteries: a mismatch beyond age
Zhang, Yi et al.
Journal of Hypertension 2013; 31(3): 554-9
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) in elastic artery, such as carotid-femoral PWV, has been well accepted as a gold standard of arterial stiffness in clinical practice, and widely applied as a cardiovascular risk factor in various population-based studies . Furthermore, carotid-femoral PWV has been recommended by the European Society of Hypertension and the European Society of Cardiology as a clinical marker...
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Hypertension Management in the High Cardiovascular Risk Population
Maraj Ilir et al.
International Journal of Hypertension 2013 (2013), Article ID 382802, 7 pages
Over 65 million adult Americans or approximately one-fourth of the US population has hypertension. The impact of hypertension in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is higher than any other cardiovascular risk factor including traditional factors such as obesity and dyslipidemia (Table ) and nontraditional risk factors such as increased inflammation and hypercoagulable states (Table ). Among individuals...
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Pulse wave velocity, pulse pressure and number of carotid or femoral plaques improve prediction of cardiovascular death in a population at low risk
E. Bérard et al.
Journal of Human Hypertension 2013; aop:10.1038/jhh.2013.8
The assessment of cardiovascular risk is uniformly recommended as a decision-support for therapeutic management aimed at preventing cardiovascular diseases in primary prevention. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is the formula most commonly used worldwide to assess cardiovascular risk. Subjects with an estimated 10-year probability of coronary heart disease higher than 20% are considered to be at high...
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Role of 2D strain in the early identification of left ventricular dysfunction and in the risk stratification of systemic sclerosis patients
Cusmà Piccione Maurizio et al.
Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2013; 11(1): 6
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation, widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis involving various tissues and organs such as skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, heart and blood vessels . Multiple cardiac abnormalities, including ventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, pericardial effusion, myocardial fibrosis and ischaemia, have been, frequently,...
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Assessing Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Infants With Severe Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy: A Role for a Pulmonary Artery Catheter?
Orkun Baloglu et al.
Pediatric Cardiology 2013; aop: 10.1007/s00246-013-0644-1
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is now considered to be an integral component of the pathophysiology of chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) [, , ]. However, the most appropriate approach to the identification and treatment of PAH in this patient population has not been established. Echocardiography is commonly used; however, its accuracy and precision in assessing PAH has been questioned [,...
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Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase-1 Attenuates Cold-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension
Crosswhite, Patrick et al.
Hypertension 2013; 61(3): 585-92
The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is multifactorial with genetic stress being 2 critical components. The adverse effects of cold temperatures on the human cardiovascular system are well documented. Lungs are open to the environment and are susceptible to cold air stimulation. Clinical studies suggest that inhaled cold air causes pathophysiological responses, such as vasoconstriction in...
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Insomnia and the risk of incident heart failure: a population study
Lars E. Laugsand et al.
European Heart Journal 2013; aop: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht019
Insomnia symptoms, including having difficulty initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, or having poor sleep quality, are highly prevalent among heart failure (HF) patients. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of these symptoms among HF patients ranges from 23to 73%.- However, it is largely unknown whether insomnia is associated with later risk of HF among individuals...
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Cardiovascular risk escalation with caloric excess: a prospective demonstration of the mechanics in healthy adults
Gupta K Alok et al.
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013; 12(1): 23
Excess adipose tissue, which is a hallmark for an overweight or obese status [ 1,2 ], in ectopic locations [like the visceral compartment, liver, muscle] is dysfunctional. The secreted adipokines [including cytokines and chemokines] which mediate auto, para and endocrine actions, alter the dynamic homeostatic milieu to favour systemic inflammation, and often manifest dysglycemia, dyslipidemia,...
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Epanova® and hypertriglyceridemia: pharmacological mechanisms and clinical efficacy
Yu Kataoka et al.
Future Cardiology 2013; 9(2): 177-86
Atherosclerosis is a systemic lipid and inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Given that the prevalence of metabolic risk factors is rapidly increasing, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease will become the leading cause of mortality in the future . Among cardiovascular risk factors, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to...
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Long-term Results of a 12-Week Comprehensive Ambulatory Cardiac Rehabilitation Program
Blum, Manuel R.Md et al.
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention 2013; 33(2): 84-90
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following an acute coronary event or in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) reduces subsequent overall and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and it has been shown to be a cost-effective intervention to improve exercise tolerance and psychological well-being.- However, the EUROASPIRE III survey, a multicenter study carried out in 22 European countries, recently...
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How can resistant hypertension be identified and prevented?
Anna. Solini A. et al.
Nature Reviews Cardiology 2013; aop:10.1038/nrcardio.2013.23
Adequate control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension decreases the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. 1 However, many patients are unresponsive to standard antihypertensive care. Resistant hypertension is a clinical problem faced by both primary-care clinicians and specialists, and is defined as a blood pressure (BP) that remains above the target despite the concurrent...
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